Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Comparative Economic System Example

Comparative Economic System Example Comparative Economic System – Term Paper Example A comparative analysis of the economic systems of South Korea and North Korea reveal that despite their commonly shared cultural heritage these economies differ considerably in terms of their population rate, unemployment rate, GDP, balance of trade and inflation rates. A qualitative research methodology is employed for the purpose of this comparative analysis wherein the literature review analyses available journals, government websites and articles. Comparisons among the major parameters of population, unemployment, GDP, balance of trade and inflation rate between the two economies are essential to identify whether the insights gained from the literature review confirm the findings of the data analysis. Qualitative data from the available literature underline that the economic system of South Korea is more stable than that of North Korea. The South Korean economy is characterized by stable economic growth in terms of its increasing GDP rate, growth of industrialization, and the nat ion rightly could become a member of the trillion dollar club of the world economies in 2004. On the other hand, the North Korean economy is surrounded by serious economic problems that have adversely affected its economic system. The current study shows that while South Korea is capable of managing its rapidly aging population through economic stability the increasing North Korean population may continue to suffer from poor living standards and malnutrition. Similarly, the results of the study show decreasing unemployment rates in South Korea whereas the higher unemployment rate of North Korea throws light on the absence of employment opportunities in the economy. The stable GDP rates, low inflation rate, trade surplus and low unemployment rate of South Korea stand in contrast to the decreased GDP rate, trade deficit and poor standard of living in North Korea. The findings of the study thus emphasize on the growing need for industrialization and foreign investment in the North Kore an economy.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Biography of Alice Paul, Womens Suffrage Activist

Biography of Alice Paul, Women's Suffrage Activist Alice Paul (January 11, 1885–July 9, 1977) was a leading figure responsible for the final push and success in winning passage of the 19th Amendment (womens suffrage) to the U.S. Constitution. She is identified with the more radical wing of the womens suffrage movement that later developed. Fast Facts: Alice Paul Known For: Alice Paul was one of the leaders of the womens suffrage movement and continued to work for womens rights throughout the first half of the 20th centuryBorn: January 11, 1885 in Mount Laurel, New JerseyParents: Tacie Parry and William PaulDied: July 9, 1977 in Moorestown, New JerseyEducation: Bachelors Degree from Swarthmore University; Masters Degree from Columbia University; Ph.D.  from the University of Pennsylvania; Law Degree from American UniversityPublished Works: Equal Rights AmendmentAwards and Honors:  Posthumously inducted into the National Womens Hall of Fame in and the New Jersey Hall of Fame; had stamps and coins created in her imageNotable Quote: There will never be a new world order until women are a part of it. Early Life Alice Paul was born in Moorestown, New Jersey, in 1885. Her parents raised her and her three younger siblings as Quakers. Her father, William M. Paul, was a successful businessman, and her mother, Tacie Parry Paul, was active in the Quaker (Society of Friends) movement.  Tacie Paul was a descendant of William Penn and William Paul was a descendant of the Winthrop family, both early leaders in Massachusetts.  William Paul died when Alice was 16 years old, and a more conservative male relative, asserting leadership in the family, caused some tensions with the familys more liberal and tolerant ideas. Alice Paul  attended Swarthmore College, the same institution her mother had attended as one of the first women educated there.  She majored in biology at first but developed an interest in social sciences.  Paul then went to work at the New York College Settlement, while attending the New York School of Social Work for a year after graduating from Swarthmore in 1905.   Alice Paul left for England in 1906 to work in the settlement house movement for three years. She studied first at a Quaker school and then at the University of Birmingham. While in England, Paul was exposed to the suffragist movement in progress, which had a profound impact on her direction in life. She  returned to America to get her Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania (1912).  Her dissertation was on womens legal status. Alice Paul and the National Womans Party In England, Alice Paul had taken part in more radical protests for womens suffrage, including participating in the hunger strikes. She worked with the Womens Social and Political Union. She brought back this sense of militancy, and back in the U.S. she organized protests and rallies and was imprisoned three times. Alice Paul joined and became chair of a major committee (congressional) of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) within a year, in her mid-20s. A year later in 1913, however, Alice Paul and others withdrew from the NAWSA to form the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. Paul and her supporters believed that the NAWSA was too conservative and that a more radical approach was needed to push forward the agenda of womens suffrage. Pauls new organization evolved into the National Womans Party (NWP), and Alice Pauls leadership was key to this organizations founding and future. Alice Paul and the National Womans Party emphasized working for a federal constitutional amendment for suffrage. Their position was at odds with the position of the NAWSA, headed by Carrie Chapman Catt, which was to work state-by-state as well as at the federal level. Despite the often intense acrimony between the National Womans Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association, the two groups tactics complemented each other.  NAWSAs taking more deliberate action to win suffrage in elections meant that more politicians at the federal level had a stake in keeping women voters happy. The NWPs militant stance kept the issue of womens suffrage at the forefront of the political world. Winning Womens Suffrage Alice Paul, as the leader of the NWP, took her cause to the streets. Following the same approach as her English compatriots, she put together pickets, parades, and marches, including a very large event in Washington, DC, on March 3, 1913. Eight thousand women marched down Pennsylvania Avenue with banners and floats, cheered and jeered by tens of thousands of onlookers. Just two weeks later, Pauls group met with newly-elected President Woodrow Wilson, who told them that their time had not yet come. In response, the group embarked on an 18-month period of picketing, lobbying, and demonstrations. More than 1,000 women stood at the gates of the White House each day, displaying signs as the silent sentinels. The result was that many of the picketers were arrested and jailed for months. Paul arranged a hunger strike, which led to intense publicity for her cause. In 1928, Woodrow Wilson succumbed and announced his support for womens votes. Two years later, womens suffrage was the law. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) After the 1920 victory for the federal amendment, Paul became involved in the struggle to introduce and pass an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The Equal Rights Amendment was finally passed by Congress in 1970 and sent to the states to ratify. However, the number of states necessary never ratified  the ERA within the specified time limit, and the amendment failed. Paul continued her work into her later years, earning a law degree in 1922 at Washington College, and then going on to earn a Ph.D. in law at American University. Death Alice Paul died in 1977 in New Jersey, after the heated battle for the Equal Rights Amendment brought her once more to the forefront of the American political scene. Legacy Alice Paul was one of the primary forces behind the passage of the 19th Amendment, a major and lasting achievement. Her influence continues today through the Alice Paul Institute, which states on its website: The Alice Paul Institute educates the public about the life and work of Alice Stokes Paul (1885-1977), and offers heritage and girls’ leadership development programs at Paulsdale, her home and a National Historic Landmark. Alice Paul led the final fight to get women the vote and wrote the Equal Rights Amendment. We honor her legacy as a role model of leadership in the continuing quest for equality. Sources, Alice Paul Institute. Butler, Amy E. Two Paths to Equality: Alice Paul and Ethel M. Smith in the ERA Debate, 1921-1929. State University of New York Press, 2002. Lunardini, Christine A. From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Womans Party, 1910-1928. American Social Experience, iUniverse, April 1, 2000.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Phoenix one supersonic airplane Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Phoenix one supersonic airplane - Essay Example It can be done by reducing the direct operation costs, extension of the operating range and at the same time conserve the existing investments in crew training and maintenance procedures. To the manufacturers, it would allow for its production a minimum capital cost. The design of the airplane is model B. Selecting this model would be beneficial to both the society and the company as it reduces air pollution hence conserving the environment. If the board approved commencement of the project, following would take place. There would be a reduction of harmful acoustic effect on the airport environment, increase in the operating range, reduction of the fuel consumption, and aerodynamic improvements (Concorde technical specs, 2014). Aerospatiale prepared a report through the chair and managing director Jacques Mitterrand to the Frenched secretary of state to transport Mr. Cavaille. The report was about a proposal investigation of an improved version of Concorde by the name of Concorde B. The report further explained on the quality of work done and the knowledge possessed by the Aerospatiale Company. The report also gave the go-ahead to an exploratory study that was already being done to upgrade the capability of current Concorde design. As an investment project, the Concorde B model will reduce the monopolistic market, which is only dominated by Anglo-French project. The project will also ensure the company participates in the second-generation supersonic aircraft (Concorde technical specs, 2014). The project approval will confirm an economic interest for the company, which led to the improvement of the Concorde. The project is also favorable to the manufacturer as it allows the company to perform these improvements at a minimum capital cost. The investment project will be environmental friendly as business operations are expected to be ethical. The model will reduce the harmful acoustic effect on the airport environment.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Justice - Essay Example Even though many people do not agree with how the government upholds justice, the government is still there to make sure that justice is kept. In his Civil Disobedience essay, Henry David Thoreau points out how pointless the government is. It is useless and the only reason that it has power is because it is treated strong, and not because they have the most legal point of view. Thoreau goes on to say that the government likes to do what is easiest instead of what is right; as such, Thoreau believes that if what the government is unjust, the people that should be doing the right thing should not follow the whims of the government. â€Å"A person is not obligated to devote his life to eliminating evils from the world, but he is obligated not to participate in such evils (Thoreau).† The purpose of this essay was to make it known that the government gets its power from us and that it does with that power whatever it decides to, even if it may not always be right. Thoreau made a fe w good points, but his actions in regard to how he felt about the government and its keeping of justice only showed why the government existed in the first place. In response to the approval of slavery, Thoreau protested by not paying his taxes and ended up spending a night in jail. While protesting may have seemed like a good idea at the time, all he proved was that the government was keeping justice as it should by punishing criminals refusing to obey the law. The government may not always be fair, and they may have their own agenda, but they still try to make sure that people are punished properly. On the other hand, Martin Luther King, Jr., in his Letter from Birmingham Jail, wrote about the purpose of his own protest against the government. Upset by the racial segregation in the United States, King led a nonviolent protest. However, he was arrested, being told that protesting against racial segregation should be saved for the courtroom and not for the streets. King states that â€Å"one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws (King).† In this way, the government did act in an unjust way, punishing somebody that was not doing anything bad or against the law. Legally, King was allowed to have a peaceful protest and the police did not have the right to arrest him. They wanted to put an end to something that was making them look bad, even if it was true. All the same, the government was acting in a way that they thought was proper to avoid causing more problems between King and his enemies. John Rawls took a different view on justice and civil disobedience. He believed that everybody should be allowed to â€Å"have an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for others (Rawls).† Rawls felt that if everyone had the same liberties, there would be no need for injustice or civil disobedience. This could make things easier for the government, but it would not give people the chance to exercise their right to protest. Rawls’ views continued to state that everything should be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would be the best for those least favored. These ideas would allow the government to completely avoid any trouble that might make them look bad by not letting people have all of their freedom. At the same time, the government is doing what it can to make sure that people do not act in ways that they should not. On the other side of the argument, Cicero, in The Defense

Friday, January 24, 2020

Truth Exposed in An Indians Looking-Glass for the White Man :: Synthesis Essays

Truth Exposed in An Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   William Apes, in his essay "An Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man," argues that to profess Christianity and still distinguish between races is a hypocrisy not supported by the Bible. In the first part of his essay Apes asks several questions such as why, if God loves white people so much, did he create fifteen colored people for every white one; and of all the races, who has committed the most heinous crimes? He goes on to emphasize that neither Jesus nor his disciples were white skinned. He also questions the white person's right to control Native Americans. Apes asks his predominately white, Christian audience to reexamine their own prejudices and concludes his essay pleading "pray you not stop till this tree of distinction shall be leveled to the earth, and the mantle of prejudice torn from every American heart--then peace shall pervade the Union." Apes accurately portrays the racism that Native Americans suffer. Racism exists in both the individual and within politics. During the late 1800's, when this article was written, it was illegal in Massachusetts for whites and Indians to intermarry. He labels this as a clear infringement on individuals to make their own decisions. He also raises the point that many white people do not even consider the Indian to be qualified for the rights of an individual. This dehumanization allows white people to steal the Indians' land and murder them with out a second thought. He calls on the whites, as Christians, to reassess these racist views. People cannot call themselves Christians and persecute others, based on skin color, in the name of Christianity. Apes says that words must be supplemented by actions, backing himself up with scripture such as I John 3:18, "Let us not love in word but in deed." Although Apes convincingly argues against the biases within the Christian community, he bases h is arguments on several assumptions, neglecting to address problems such as the language barrier and problems that arise when two different cultures try to occupy the same land. When Apes uses Christianity as his tool to dispel racism he makes several unbacked assumptions. To begin with, he forgets that whites and Indians rarely use the same language let alone have the same religious values, therefore no one tool can be used for both cultures. Besides just the obvious language barrier, whites and Indians use entirely different words and phrases to express concepts.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Indian Cuisine

Indian Cuisine Think of India and one of the first things that come to mind is its diversity. A large populous country divided into many states; each with its own unique traditions and gastronomic fare. Indian cooking is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Not only is it popular among the large Indian diaspora but also among the mainstream population of North America and Europe. For the uninitiated, Indian food may seem foreign, scary, spicy and not for the faint of heart. This paper aims to explore many of the facets that make up Indian cuisine and hopefully allay any misconceptions or fears that may exist. The chapters are categorized under the following sections: 1. The Evolution of Indian Cooking 2. Geographical Variation 3. Dietary Customs in India 4. The Story of Spices 5. Curry: What is it? 6. Indian Dining Etiquette The Evolution Of Indian Cooking Indian cuisine derives from a 4000 year timeline. It has significantly evolved as a result of the various influences introduced into the country by many travelers and rulers. Despite this evolution, it has not lost its original identity, but rather became richer with the assimilation of theses varied influences. The following historical timeline (Bhattacharya, n. d. ) of how Indian gastronomy evolved will help shape our understanding and appreciation of this cooking style. 2000 BC and earlier. Most people believe that the origins of Indian history, and therefore the cuisine, dates back to Mohenjedaro and Harrapan civilizations. It is understood that the Ayurvedic tradition of cooking, which is a complete holistic approach to cooking, evolved at this point in time. In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, meat, grain, dairy products and honey. Over time, some segments of the population embraced vegetarianism due to the ancient Hindu philosophy of ahimsa. 1000 BC. At this point we see the first influx of outsiders into the country. The Mohenjodaro people are believed to have been pushed to southern India and the cuisine there is still largely vegetarian. The roots of Hinduism are shaped at this point along with the Vedas and the Mahabharata. The caste system is developed dividing eating habits broadly by caste. For example; the Brahmins were mostly vegetarians while the Kshatriyas were meat eaters. 400 BC: This period saw the development of Buddhism outside India which resulted in the migration of people as well as their food and dietary requirements. 1200 AD: This period saw several north Indian dynasties rule and became known as the Golden Age of Indian Art. There were several travelers who visited India and were responsible for the introduction of tea. However, from a culinary perspective there are still no significant external influences brought into the country. 1200-1800AD: During the reign of the Moghuls we see the emergence of Moglai cuisine. It’s this type of cooking that people now associate with India. The cooking style is characterized by the addition of several seasonings like saffron and nuts. The influx of European influences into parts of southern India, such as Kerala, resulted in the beginning of the Syrian Christian cuisine. 1800 – 1947 AD: The age of British colonial rule saw the start of the English love affair with Indian food. It was hardly a glorified period in Indian history, but the British loved the elaborate way of eating and adapted several of the food choices to their taste. They developed the curry as a simple spice to help them cook Indian meals. Geographical Variation The cuisines of India are as richly diverse and varied as its culture, ethnic makeup and geography. According to Sarakar (n. d. ), the common characteristic of all Indian cooking is the tremendous use and blending of a variety of wonderfully exotic spices. As a land that has experienced extensive immigration and intermingling over the centuries, India's cuisine has benefited from numerous food influences. The diverse climate which ranges from tropical to alpine has also helped broaden the set of ingredients available for cooking. Northern India North Indian cuisine is distinguished by a proportionally high use of dairy products. The tawa, or griddle, is used extensively for baking flat breads like roti and paratha. A tandoor oven is also frequently used to cook main courses like chicken. Goat and lamb are favored ingredients of many northern Indian recipes. The samosa, a common appetizer on all Indian restaurant menus, has its roots in northern India. The staple food of most of north Indians are a variety of lentils, vegetables, and roti. Common north Indian foods such as kebabs and meat dishes originated with the Muslim incursions into the country. The influence of Europeans is also apparent with the creation of new dishes like chicken tikka masala which is actually a British invention during colonial times. Eastern India In the eastern part of India there is a large Oriental influence resulting from an influx of movement from Tibet and Nepal. All of these influences helped form the dietary customs in eastern India. Popular food is this region is a unique blend of vegetarian meals prepared in the traditional Chinese cooking style. Rice and fish are the staple foods because most of the towns and fishing villages are located on the coast. Southern India Southern Indian cuisine is distinguished by a greater emphasis on rice and the liberal use of coconut, coconut oil and curry leaves. Before Christianity came to India in the early 52 AD, Kerala was strictly vegetarian as regulated by Hinduism. However, after the visit of St. Thomas, Christianity quickly spread throughout Kerala and thus the diet evolved to also include meat. Western India The geography of the landscape and the culture of the people definitely influenced the region’s cuisine. Rajasthan and Gujarat have hot, dry climates so the relatively smaller varieties of vegetables available are preserved as pickles and chutneys. Culturally these states are largely Hindu and vegetarian. Peanuts and coconut are prominent ingredients as they are freely available. Goa, with its lush green coastline, has an abundance of fresh fish and seafood. Local dishes like Vindaloo are testament to the fact that Goa was a Portuguese colony until the 1960s. This region probably has the most diverse styles of food in India. Food from the Rajasthan area is spicy and largely vegetarian but includes many meat dishes. Gujarat’s cuisine is know for its slightly sweet taste (at least a pinch of sugar is added to most dishes) and is traditionally entirely vegetarian. Dietary customs in India As you would expect from a country as large and diverse as India, there are a variety of different dietary customs. Religion is a significant contributing factor to the diets of Indians. Hinduism is the dominant religion in India making up about 80% of the population while Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and Buddhists make up a sizeable minority. Some religions impose dietary restrictions which prohibit the eating of beef or pork. The most commonly served dishes at Indian dinner parties and public functions tend to comprise of chicken, lamb or fish as this avoids any potential difficulties with restricted diets for meat eaters. Here is a general guide to the dietary customs of the three major religious groups in India: Hindus Most Hindus follow a balanced vegetarian diet. Some do eat meat occasionally but Hindus do not eat beef out of reverence for the cow as a sacred animal. Strict Hindus will also avoid garlic, onions and mushrooms. Mushrooms are thought to promote ignorance, whilst garlic and onions are thought to invoke passion. Muslims Muslims cannot eat pork, lard or any other porcine derivatives. Islam prohibits eating meat that is not slaughtered in the correct Islamic way. Muslims recite the name of God before and after eating, eat with the right hand and find it desirable to always eat in the company of others. Sikhs Sikhs do not believe in ritual killing and are instructed to avoid meat slaughtered in this way. Although in many aspects Sikhism is less prescriptive than some other religions, most Sikhs do not eat beef or pork. Many Sikhs are vegetarian and in observance of such a variety of dietary habits, all food served in Sikh places of worship is vegetarian. Sikhism is probably the only major organized religion which does not encourage fasting as it is viewed as having no spiritual benefit. The Story Of Spices Spices are the jewels of Indian cooking. Their flavors are meant to be savored and should not be overpowered by the burning sensation resulting from the liberal use of hot chilies. Parbhoo (1985) suggests that authentic Indian food should generally not be too hot and recommends that spices be used lavishly in the same way cheese or wine is used in French cuisine. Chilies in themselves have very little flavor but contribute to the dish by providing a sensation of heat which can be regulated to the cook’s preference. Spices have three traditional functions: medicinal, preservative and seasoning. Early Indian literature written in Sanskrit and dating back 3000 years to the Vedic period emphasizes the importance of spices for preserving food. The Ayurveda, an ancient Hindu treatise on medicine, places special emphasis on the medicinal properties of spices. A few of examples of commonly used spices and their additional medicinal benefits are listed below: |Name |Uses in cooking |Medicinal Benefit | |Chilies |Prime ingredient of masalas and provides the heat and |Used to neutralize poison and relieve hypothermia in cases of cholera. | |flavor. | | |Cinnamon |Used for aroma in meat, rice and pickles. Ground cinnamon |Has anti-inflammatory that can lessen joint and muscle pain. | | |used in sweet dishes. | | |Anis Seed |Used in savory dishes to provide flavor. |Used to aid digestion and act as a breath freshener. | |Fenugreek Seeds |Provides a bitter flavor in savory dishes. |Provides relief from coughs, asthma and rheumatism. |Cloves |Used for aromatic qualities in meat and rice dishes. Also |Used as a local anesthetic. | | |an essential ingredient in masalas. | | Curry: What is it? Curry is a generic description used throug hout European and American culture to describe a general variety of spiced dishes. The word curry is an anglicized version of the Tamil word kari. Several articles (Sarkar, n. d. ; Smith, 1998) suggest it is usually understood to mean gravy or sauce, rather than spices. Curry's popularity in recent decades has spread outward from the Indian subcontinent to figure prominently in international cuisine. While many people think that curry is a particular spice, it is actually a mixture of spices commonly referred to as curry powder. This powder is versatile in both taste and flavor and varies widely depending on the region it comes from. Most people associate curry with a bright yellow color. This color is caused by the spice turmeric that is a common ingredient. However, not all curry powder mixtures contain turmeric and, in fact, curry powders can be as individual as the person making them. Some spices you might find in this mixture include chilies, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, cloves, coriander, mace, fenugreek, sesame seeds, red pepper, black pepper, poppy seeds, tamarind and saffron. Oftentimes the curry powder mixture recipe is passed down from one generation to the next and is a safely guarded secret. Indian Dining Etiquette Though Indian cooking uses an extensive array of specialized utensils for various purposes, Indians traditionally do not use much cutlery for eating as many foods are best enjoyed when eating with the hand. It is a technique that is clean and easy when done correctly. Cook (2008) suggests the reason for using the hands is that it adds an additional element of enjoyment to the taste because it helps with blending the food. In many parts of India, when eating curry, the gravy must not be allowed to stain your finger only the fingertips. The left hand is not used and kept clean to facilitate the passing of dishes along the table. These variations are further compounded and increased by the diversity of the population India, leading to regional differences in the way people dine. In Janjira’s (2009) article on Indian Dining Etiquette, he explains that in North India it is common to be seated at a dining table to eat. While in south India, especially is Kerala, it is as common to see people sitting down and eating on banana leaves. The entire meal will be placed and served on banana leaves and eaten with the hand. The concept of courses at mealtime does not exist in India. Most Indian homes will serve the food all at once and then keep filling the dishes as dinner progresses. Everything cooked will be made available on the table with the exception of the dessert which will follow once most guests are done eating. While general etiquette rules might suggest that everything should be tried, it is more in theory than in practice and it is perfectly fine to skip something which might not suit your taste. Desserts on the other hand more often than not require the use of utensils. Unlike the western world where dessert may also be followed by coffee or liquor; the serving of the dessert would often indicate that dinner is almost over. Conclusion As evident in the above chapters, Indian cuisine has a long history of being influenced by the unique needs and tastes of its indigenous people, invaders and explorers. The food, cooking techniques and ingredients have evolved based on peoples’ religious needs or influenced by the availability of ingredients across India’s vast and varied landscape. But even after all this; Indian cuisine manages to retain its unique heritage and identity in a global gastronomic landscape that tends to be fickled and faddish. Indian food is enjoyed by commoners and royalty alike and it is hoped that this paper will enlighten the reader and allay any fears or misconceptions that may have previously prevented the sampling of Indian cooking. References Bhattacharya , R (n. d) History of Indian Cooking: A Historical Perspective on Indian Cooking. Retrieved November 25, 2009, from http://www. inmamaskitchen. com/Indian_Cooking/history_Indian_food_cooking. html Cook, S (2008). Indian Eating Etiquette. Retrieved September 28, 2009 from http://www. india-travel-suite101. com/article. cfm/eating_in_indian_style Curry. Retrieved October 15, 2009 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/curry Indian Cuisine – Origins and Indian Culinary History. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from http://www. ndianfoodsco. com/Classes/CulinayHistory. htm Indian Cuisine. Retrieved October 25, 2009, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Indian_cuisine Janjira, M (2009). Indian Dining Etiquette. Retrieved September 22, 2009 from http://www. indianmusings. wordpress. com/2009/02/020indian-dining-etiquette Leong, K (n. d). The Health Benefits of Indian Food. Retrieved October 15, 2009 from http://www. associatedcontent. com/pop_print. shtml? content_ty pe=article&content_typeid=1829365 Parbhoo, R. (1985). Indian Coookery for South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Printpak Books. Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) (September 30th 2008). APA Formatting and Style Guide. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Sarkar, P (n. d). The Cuisine Of East India: An Introduction to Eastern Indian Food. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://indianfood. about. com/old/thebasics/p/eastindia. htm Smith, D (1998). Definition and History of Curry. Retrieved September 24, 2009 from http://www. curryhouse. co. uk/faq/define. htm

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700

Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium B.C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas, who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991. Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier ​Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization. Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves the Arya migrated into northwest India between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C. By the first millennium B.C., their culture had spread throughout northern India. Their many small kingdoms were constantly at war amid the dynamic religious and cultural environment of early Hinduism. By 500 B.C., a cosmopolitan society was growing around urban sites linked by trade routes that stretched throughout South Asia and beyond. On the edges of the Gangetic Plain, in the Tarai Region, smaller kingdoms or confederations of tribes grew up, responding to dangers from larger kingdoms and opportunities for trade. It is probable that slow and steady migration of Khasa peoples speaking Indo-Aryan languages were occurring in western Nepal during this period; this movement of peoples would continue, in fact, until modern times and expand to include the eastern Tarai as well. One of the early confederations of the Tarai was the Sakya clan, whose seat apparently was Kapilavastu, near Nepals present-day border with India. Their most renowned son was Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563 to 483 B.C.), a prince who rejected the world to search for the meaning of existence and became known as the Buddha, or the Enlightened One. The earliest stories of his life recount his wanderings in the area stretching from the Tarai to Banaras on the Ganges River and into modern Bihar State in India, where he found enlightenment at Gaya -- still the site of one of the greatest Buddhist shrines. After his death and cremation, his ashes were distributed among some of the major kingdoms and confederations and were enshrined under mounds of earth or stone called stupas. Certainly, his religion was known at a very early date in Nepal through the Buddhas ministry and the activities of his disciples. Glossary of Terms Khasa: A term applied to the peoples and languages in the western parts of Nepal, closely related to the cultures of northern India.Kirata: A Tibeto-Burman ethnic group inhabiting eastern Nepal since before the Licchavi Dynasty, just prior to and during the early years of the Christian era. The Mauryan Empire (268 to 31 B.C.) The political struggles and urbanization of north India culminated in the great Mauryan Empire, which at its height under Ashoka (reigned 268 to 31 B.C.) covered almost all of South Asia and stretched into Afghanistan in the west. There is no proof that Nepal was ever included in the empire, although records of Ashoka are located at Lumbini, the Buddhas birthplace, in the Tarai. But the empire had important cultural and political consequences for Nepal. First, Ashoka himself embraced Buddhism, and during his time the religion must have become established in the Kathmandu Valley and throughout much of Nepal. Ashoka was known as a great builder of stupas, and his archaic style is preserved in four mounds on the outskirts of Patan (now often referred to as Lalitpur), which were locally called Ashok stupas, and possibly in the Svayambhunath (or Swayambhunath) stupa. Second, along with religion came an entire cultural style centered on the king as the upholder of dharma, or the cosmic law of the universe. This political concept of the king as the righteous center of the political system had a powerful impact on all later South Asian governments and continued to play a major role in modern Nepal. The Mauryan Empire declined after the second century B.C., and north India entered a period of political disunity. The extended urban and commercial systems expanded to include much of Inner Asia, however, and close contacts were maintained with European merchants. Nepal was apparently a distant part of this commercial network because even Ptolemy and other Greek writers of the second century knew of the Kiratas as a people who lived near China. North India was united by the Gupta emperors again in the fourth century. Their capital was the old Mauryan center of Pataliputra (present-day Patna in Bihar State), during what Indian writers often describe as a golden age of artistic and cultural creativity. The greatest conqueror of this dynasty was Samudragupta (reigned ca. 353 to 73), who claimed that the lord of Nepal paid him taxes and tribute and obeyed his commands. It still is impossible to tell who this lord may have been, what area he ruled, and if he was really a subordinate of t he Guptas. Some of the earliest examples of Nepalese art show that the culture of north India during Gupta times exercised a decisive influence on Nepali language, religion, and artistic expression. The Early Kingdom of the Licchavis (400 to 750 A.D.) In the late fifth century, rulers calling themselves Licchavis began to record details on politics, society, and economy in Nepal. The Licchavis were known from early Buddhist legends as a ruling family during the Buddhas time in India, and the founder of the Gupta Dynasty claimed that he had married a Licchavi princess. Perhaps some members of this Licchavi family married members of a local royal family in the Kathmandu Valley, or perhaps the illustrious history of the name prompted early Nepalese notables to identify themselves with it. In any case, the Licchavis of Nepal was a strictly local dynasty based in the Kathmandu Valley and oversaw the growth of the first truly Nepalese state. The earliest known Licchavi record, an inscription of Manadeva I, dates from 464, and mentions three preceding rulers, suggesting that the dynasty began in the late fourth century. The last Licchavi inscription was in A.D. 733. All of the Licchavi records are deeds reporting donations to religious foundations, predominantly Hindu temples. The language of the inscriptions is Sanskrit, the language of the court in north India, and the script is closely related to official Gupta scripts. There is little doubt that India exerted a powerful cultural influence, especially through the area called Mithila, the northern part of present-day Bihar State. Politically, however, India again was divided for most of the Licchavi period. To the north, Tibet grew into an expansive military power through the seventh century, declining only by 843. Some early historians, such as the French scholar Sylvain LÃ ©vi, thought that Nepal may have become subordinate to Tibet for some time, but more recent Nepalese historians, including Dilli Raman Regmi, deny this interpretation. In any case, from the seventh century onward a recurring pattern of foreign relations emerged for rulers in Nepal: more intensive cultural contacts with the south, potential political threats from both India and Tibet, and continuing trade contacts in both directions. The Licchavi political system closely resembled that of northern India. At the top was the great king (maharaja), who in theory exercised absolute power but in reality, interfered little in the social lives of his subjects. Their behavior was regulated in accordance with dharma through their own village and caste councils. The king was aided by royal officers led by a prime minister, who also served as a military commander. As the preserver of the righteous moral order, the king had no set limit for his domain, whose borders were determined only by the power of his army and statecraft--an ideology that supported almost unceasing warfare throughout South Asia. In Nepals case, the geographic realities of the hills limited the Licchavi kingdom to the Kathmandu Valley and neighboring valleys and to the more symbolic submission of less hierarchical societies to the east and west. Within the Licchavi system, there was ample room for powerful notables (Samanta) to keep their own private arm ies, run their own landholdings, and influence the court. There was thus a variety of forces struggling for power. During the seventh century, a family is known as the Abhira Guptas accumulated enough influence to take over the government. The prime minister, Amsuvarman, assumed the throne between approximately 605 and 641, after which the Licchavis regained power. The later history of Nepal offers similar examples, but behind these struggles was growing a long tradition of kingship. The economy of the Kathmandu Valley already was based on agriculture during the Licchavi period. Artworks and place-names mentioned in inscriptions show that settlements had filled the entire valley and moved east toward Banepa, west toward Tisting, and northwest toward present-day Gorkha. Peasants lived in villages (grama) that were administratively grouped into larger units (dranga). They grew rice and other grains as staples on lands owned by the royal family, other major families, Buddhist monastic orders (sangha), or groups of Brahmans (agrahara). Land taxes due in theory to the king were often allocated to religious or charitable foundations, and additional labor dues (vishti) were required from the peasantry in order to keep up irrigation works, roads, and shrines. The village head (usually known as pradhan, meaning a leader in family or society) and leading families handled most local administrative issues, forming the village assembly of leaders (panchalika or grama pancha). This ancient history of localized decision making served as a model for late-twentieth-century development efforts. Trade in Kathmandu One of the most striking features of present-day Kathmandu Valley is its vibrant urbanism, notably at Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhadgaon (also called Bhaktapur), which apparently goes back to ancient times. During the Licchavi period, however, the settlement pattern seems to have been much more diffuse and sparse. In the present-day city of Kathmandu, there existed two early villages--Koligrama (Village of the Kolis, or Yambu in Newari), and Dakshinakoligrama (South Koli Village, or Yangala in Newari)--that grew up around the valleys main trade route. Bhadgaon was simply a small village then called Khoprn (Khoprngrama in Sanskrit) along the same trade route. The site of Patan was known as Yala (Village of the Sacrificial Post, or Yupagrama in Sanskrit). In view of the four archaic stupas on its outskirts and its very old tradition of Buddhism, Patan probably can claim to be the oldest true center in the nation. Licchavi palaces or public buildings, however, have not survived. The truly i mportant public sites in those days were religious foundations, including the original stupas at Svayambhunath, Bodhnath, and Chabahil, as well as the shrine of Shiva at Deopatan, and the shrine of Vishnu at Hadigaon. There was a close relationship between the Licchavi settlements and trade. The Kolis of present-day Kathmandu and the Vrijis of present-day Hadigaon were known even in the Buddhas time as commercial and political confederations in north India. By the time of the Licchavi kingdom, trade had long been intimately connected with the spread of Buddhism and religious pilgrimage. One of the main contributions of Nepal during this period was the transmission of Buddhist culture to Tibet and all of central Asia, through merchants, pilgrims, and missionaries. In return, Nepal gained money from customs duties and goods that helped to support the Licchavi state, as well as the artistic heritage that made the valley famous. The River System of Nepal Nepal can be divided into three major river systems from east to west: the Kosi River, the Narayani River (Indias Gandak River), and the Karnali River. All ultimately become major tributaries of the Ganges River in northern India. After plunging through deep gorges, these rivers deposit their heavy sediments and debris on the plains, thereby nurturing them and renewing their alluvial soil fertility. Once they reach the Tarai Region, they often overflow their banks onto wide floodplains during the summer monsoon season, periodically shifting their courses. Besides providing fertile alluvial soil, the backbone of the agrarian economy, these rivers present great possibilities for hydroelectric and irrigation development. India managed to exploit this resource by building massive dams on the Kosi and Narayani rivers inside the Nepal border, known, respectively, as the Kosi and Gandak projects. None of these river systems, however, support any significant commercial navigation facility. R ather, the deep gorges formed by the rivers represent immense obstacles to establishing the broad transport and communication networks needed to develop an integrated national economy. As a result, the economy in Nepal has remained fragmented. Because Nepals rivers have not been harnessed for transportation, most settlements in the Hill and Mountain regions remain isolated from each other. As of 1991, trails remained the primary transportation routes in the hills. The eastern part of the country is drained by the Kosi River, which has seven tributaries. It is locally known as the Sapt Kosi, which means seven Kosi rivers (Tamur, Likhu Khola, Dudh, Sun, Indrawati, Tama, and Arun). The principal tributary is the Arun, which rises about 150 kilometers inside the Tibetan Plateau. The Narayani River drains the central part of Nepal and also has seven major tributaries (Daraudi, Seti, Madi, Kali, Marsyandi, Budhi, and Trisuli). The Kali, which flows between the Dhaulagiri Himal and the Annapurna Himal (Himal is the Nepali variation of the Sanskrit word Himalaya), is the main river of this drainage system. The river system draining the western part of Nepal is the Karnali. Its three immediate tributaries are the Bheri, Seti, and Karnali rivers, the latter being the major one. The Maha Kali, which also is known as the Kali and which flows along the Nepal-India border on the west side, and the Rapti River also are considered tributaries of the Karnali.